Conversion tables for simulating different types of color vision deficiency (CVD): Protanomaly, deutanomaly, tritanomaly.





Lists of 3x3 RGB-color transformation matrices for the various types of CVD. Each list contains 11 transformation matrices representing increasingly severe color vision deficiency.


Machado et al. (2009) have established a novel model, that allows to handle normal color vision, anomalous trichromacy, and dichromacy in a unified way. They also provide conversion formulas along with tables of certain constants that allow to simulate various types of CVD. See simulate_cvd for the corresponding simulation functions.


Machado GM, Oliveira MM, Fernandes LAF (2009). A Physiologically-Based Model for Simulation of Color Vision Deficiency. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. 15(6), 1291--1298. doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.113 Online version with supplements at

Zeileis A, Fisher JC, Hornik K, Ihaka R, McWhite CD, Murrell P, Stauffer R, Wilke CO (2020). “colorspace: A Toolbox for Manipulating and Assessing Colors and Palettes.” Journal of Statistical Software, 96(1), 1--49. doi:10.18637/jss.v096.i01

See also